thary yty5t staad k7haa 4rbdz inhd7 f2dhb 35yiy d5de5 fs3ss 3f85i yb35f ya63h 8nat3 z2s35 i8han 43z3t 8hyza 5eb27 kyhkd 995s3 Immanuel and the 'El gibbôr Child in Isaiah 7 and 9: The Virgin Birth of the Messiah as YHWH Himself in Isaiah's Original Context |

Immanuel and the 'El gibbôr Child in Isaiah 7 and 9: The Virgin Birth of the Messiah as YHWH Himself in Isaiah's Original Context

2021.11.28 05:18 TribeofYHWH Immanuel and the 'El gibbôr Child in Isaiah 7 and 9: The Virgin Birth of the Messiah as YHWH Himself in Isaiah's Original Context

Many interpreters take Immanuel in Isaiah 7 as Hezekiah, a descendent of Ahaz, to be born in the imminent future, not necessarily from a virgin, and not divine. I will however be arguing against the grain on all of these points.
This is my final post on these passages in First Isaiah.
\______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________)
Hezekiah? Many think that the child of Isaiah 7 and 9 is Ahaz's son, Hezekiah. However, the equation of Hezekiah with the "Son" in Isa. 7 and 9 is specious:

  1. Hezekiah is not mentioned anywhere in the immediate literary context of the denkschrift.
  2. Hezekiah was already born according to the historical context. J.J. Collins writes: "According to 2 Kgs 18.10, the fall of Samaria (722/721 BCE) was in the sixth year of Hezekiah, but according to v. 13 in the same chapter, the campaign of Sennacherib in 701 BCE was in his 14th year . . . Accordingly, his date of accession is variously given as 728/27 or 715 BCE. In 2 Kgs 18.1 we are told that he was 25 years old when he came to the throne, and if this is correct he would have been born too early on either date of accession" (J.J. Collins, "The Sign of Immanuel," in Prophecy and Prophets in Ancient Israel, 2010, pp. 232). See also Antti Laato, "Isaiah in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Jewish Traditions," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah, 2020, pp. 511: "Hezekiah cannot be identified with Immanuel."
  3. It would be awkward if Isaiah saw Hezekiah as Immanuel ("with us [is] God") or the "Son" of Isaiah 9. As Antti Laato points out, "Hezekiah rebelled against Assyria. This political decision was, according to Isaiah, nothing but filth in the eyes of the Lord (Isa 30,1-5; 31,1-3)" - Antti Laato, "History and ideology in the old testament prophetic books," Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, 1994, pp. 294. Isa. 22:1-14; 32:9-14 (and 1:4-9) also show that Isaiah son of Amoz was very critical with Judah's foreign policy under Hezekiah (see Antti Laato, "Understanding Zion Theology in the Book of Isaiah," in Studies in Isaiah, History, Theology, and Reception, Bloomsbury, 2017, pp. 31, 42-43).
  4. Details within Isaiah 7-11 will reveal the boy to be the future Messiah, not Hezekiah (see below).
  5. The biggest point here is: there is no evidence of Isaiah viewing Hezekiah as deity (see below for the deity of the Son's). So I can't see how Isaiah saw Hezekiah as the fulfillment of Isaiah 7 and 9.
(6) Many point to Isaiah 36-39 to show that Immanuel in Isaiah 7 and the el-gibbor child in Isaiah 9 was meant to be Hezekiah (see, for example, Isa. 9:7; cf. 37:32). But this turns out this be a very specious argument. Jacob Stromberg writes for example:
Hezekiah, having been told that “days” (ימים) are coming when his kingdom will be dismantled by the Babylonians, responds by noting that “there will be peace [שלום] and security in my days" (39:8 → 38:3) . . . This, the last line of the story, seems carefully calculated to tell the reader that, although Hezekiah had earlier looked like the fulfillment of the days anticipated by 9:1–7, in the end, he was not: the scope of peace (שלום) in those days would be “without end” (9:7).
(Jacob Stromberg, "The Book of Isaiah: Its Final Structure," in The Oxford Handbook of Isaiah, 2020, pp. 25-26).
Isaiah 39 overall has a negative view of Hezekiah as well (e.g., he trusts in his gold to deliver himself rather than YHWH). Most importantly though, Isaiah 38 and 39 are not in chronological order. In light of this, it is striking that in Isaiah 38, Hezekiah at last puts his trust in YHWH alone, unlike Ahaz. But in Isaiah 39, Hezekiah is leaning on the Babylonians and his possessions for help. As Sehoon Jang points out, by purposely switching the chronology of the story by ending with a negative portrayal of Hezekiah, the author of Isaiah 36-39 is implying that Hezekiah was not the coming king prophesied in the royal oracles of Isaiah 6-12. This is because, as noted above, the author of Isaiah 36-39 at first leads on the reader to think that Hezekiah was the fulfillment of the royal oracles. For this argument further fleshed out, see:
While Hezekiah was thought of as a better king, he wasn't good enough (and apparently not as good as Josiah, per 2 Kings 23:25). So this actually turns out to be a 6th point against Hezekiah as Immanuel and el-gibbor, though not proof (since most scholars think that Isaiah 36-39 dates later, perhaps much later, than the royal oracles of Isaiah 6-12).
\______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________)
The Immanuel Oracle (Isaiah 7). When Assyria continued to march westward in the year 734 B.C.E., Ephraim and Syria wanted Judah to form an alliance with them to defend against the Assyrian swarm. When Judah refused, Ephraim and Syria (what was than known as "Aram") teamed up against Judah so they could lay a siege against it and install a puppet King, "the son of Tabeel." This lead to the shaking of the heart of Ahaz and the people of Judah "as the trees of the forest shake before the wind" (Isa. 7:2). While Ahaz fears, Isaiah and his son is sent to Ahaz to encourage him to have complete trust in YHWH (v. 3-6), with v. 6-9 announcing the failure of Judah's enemies.
In v. 10-11, Isaiah says YHWH encouraged Ahaz to ask for a sign "as deep as Sheol or high as heaven," but Ahaz refused, and v. 12 gives the reason: "I will not ask, and I will not put the Lord to the test." The imperative verbs are all second person masculine singular in form, as well as two pronouns. V. 13 than switches to the second person plural, indicating that the sign is for the ENTIRE Davidic house, not just for Ahaz in particular (v. 13 thus alludes to v. 9b; see below). This switch from the referent being Ahaz in v. 12 to the entire dynasty of the House of David in v. 13 after Ahaz refused the sign is key. Peter J. Gentry explains:
The quoted speech [in v. 13] begins as follows: “Hear O House of David, is it too trivial for you humans that weary my God?” The two verbs, “hear” (וּעמשׁ) and “you must weary” (וּאלתּ) are second person plural in form. The one pronoun employed with the infinitive “to weary” is also second person plural. Yahweh/Isaiah is no longer addressing Ahaz directly or specifically; he is addressing the entire dynasty of David: past, present, and future—the whole House of David. The pronoun in verse 14 is also second masculine plural in form. The sign in verse 11 was offered specifically to Ahaz. Ahaz declined. In spite of Ahaz’s response, Yahweh gave a sign. The sign he gave was for the entire family line of David and is therefore not at all tied to the time of Ahaz.
(Peter J. Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16—A Direct Prediction of a Distant Future Relative to Isaiah’s Time?," in The Mother of the Infant King [Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020], pp. 188).
So Isa. 7's sign spans the entire history of the remaining Davidic family tree, something that will be clarified in Isa. 11:1. Verses 15-16a continue to speak in the third person masculine singular about the promised boy. Then, suddenly, v. 16b switches to second masculine singular in form, once again addressing specifically Ahaz and his days again, including what follows (v. 17-25).
This analysis is supported by Isaiah 7:9b, which is also couched in the plural (which v. 13f. alludes to), in contrast to the preceding verses, and v. 10-12. Isa. 7:9b supports Gentry's interpretation because it echoes the Nathan oracle of 2 Samuel 7, which suggests a dynastic application.
A counter could be raised by Isaiah 7:2:
וַיֻּגַּ֗ד לְבֵ֤ית דָּוִד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר נָ֥חָה אֲרָ֖ם עַל־אֶפְרָ֑יִם וַיָּ֤נַע לְבָבוֹ֙ וּלְבַ֣ב עַמּ֔וֹ כְּנ֥וֹעַ עֲצֵי־יַ֖עַר מִפְּנֵי־רֽוּחַ׃
Here, the threat was explained to the "house of David," and Ahaz's heart is said to be shaken, and the heart his people. So one could argue that the "House of David' refers to Ahaz in v. 13ff. also, i.e., no switch in subject. But "House of David" in Isa. 7:2 is singular (as are the rest of the verbs and pronouns in this verse), unlike v. 13-14, which mysteriously switches from the singular as used in v. 10-12, unambiguously referring to Ahaz.
Ahaz is a natural referent in v. 2 because he was the current representative of the House of David at the time of the author's writing (most likely). The message given here to the House of David is in the present tense and concerns how Aram is putting pressure on Ephraim to attack Judah and Jerusalem. In contrast, we are dealing first of all with a sign (see below) and with something that is definitely future. What we don't know is how far into the future Isaiah thought of when just reading him alone. As the text shows, before the boy is at the age of responsibility, the land (which includes Judah) will be in exile (see Isa. 7:15-16). This content in itself suggests a future not in the time of Ahaz. The shift to the Second Person Plural facilitates this as part of the picture.

The Verbs in Isaiah 7:14
For the verbs used in Isa. 7:14 vis-à-vis the temporal scope of the oracle, see here. For even more detailed comments, see Peter J. Gentry's appendix in Christophe Rico's The Mother of the Infant King (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020), pp. 188-196.
There isn't actually a grammatical tense relationship in this prophesy. Context is what defines the “when," and the "when" points to a time beyond the imminent future.

Isaiah 7:15
Peter J. Gentry summarizes the child “eating curds and honey" (Isa. 7:15):
Curds are a product of pastoralists, those who herd flocks of goats or sheep and cattle. Honey comes from bees and refers to the forests as opposed to cultivated land because honey bees flourished in the wild . . . Pastoralists, those who grazed animals, would look for uncultivated areas for pasturage. Farmers, on the other hand, were terracing the hillsides and turning areas that grew wild into cultivated fields and vineyards. What Isaiah is saying is that . . . there will be few farmers, and the cultivated fields will return to regions left to grow wild. This would allow bees and pastoralists more territory. So . . . the fact that the child will eat curds and honey means that the land will be dominated by pastoralists and not farmers. This is an indication of the devastation and destruction.
(Gentry, "Isaiah 7:12-16," in The Mother of the Infant King, pp. 215)
The negative use of the same terminology in 7:21-22 suggests this analysis is correct. Immanuel is to be born beyond the immediate future during the aftermath of destruction, for Isa. 7:15's curds and honey "signifies the aftermath of catastrophe and the disruption of a thriving agricultural society" (Etan Levine, “The Land of Milk and Honey,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2000, pp. 57 [emphasis mine]). So construed through Gentry's and Levine's analysis, Immanuel eating curds and honey means that he will be born during a time of want and adversity in Israel.

Isaiah 7:16
Many point to Isa. 7:16 for the imminence of the Immanuel boy. But this v. is hard to render. It is thus immature to speak about the imminence of the birth of Immanuel from this alone. The NRSV translates the v. as:
Before the child knows how to refuse the evil and choose the good the land before whose two kings you are in dread will be deserted.
Whether one should agree with his "tearing apart" translation (which he makes a good case for), Peter J. Gentry correctly argues:
The pronoun on the suffixed noun, “her kings” must refer to “land” since the pronoun is feminine singular . . . The two kings cannot be the King of Israel and the King of Aram . . . because one could not say of them, that “the land had two kings."
Gentry interprets the two kings as that of Northern Israel and Judah, which would expand the horizon of the oracle. One doesn't have to agree with Gentry's translation of v. 16 to recognize that the NRSV contradicts Hebrew grammar though.
H.G.M. Williamson has "before whose two kings you are in dread," but asserts that "many (though by no means all) commentators" regard this part of the verse "to be a later addition" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 168). Williamson than writes in what relates to Gentry's point:
It is incongruous to have one land mentioned with two kings . . . (ibid., 168).
Thus, in ibid., 167 Williamson translates the earliest text behind the current oracle in v. 16 as:
For before the lad knows to reject the bad and choose the good, the land will be abandoned.
This also may imply that Judah will be deserted (with no decisive temporal indictor).
Christophe Rico, in his book The Mother of the Infant King (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2020), pp. 144-147 argues that the v. should be translated as:
Before [Immanuel] knows to reject evil and to choose good the land which disgusts you because of its two kings will be abandoned.
Rico's translation is most supported by the versions and I agree with it. "The text implies that the country would be emptied of its inhabitants" (ibid., 147). This broadens the horizon of this prophecy, for "the abandonment of the land can refer either to the campaign of Tiglath-Pileser in 732 or to the successive deportations which occurred in Samaria (722-21) and in Judah (597 and 586)" (ibid., 147). So Rico interprets this v. as speaking about one country 'the land (Judah) whose two kings you hate, that land will be abandoned.' This dramatically increases the temporal horizon of the oracle here.
\______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________)
The El-Gibbor Oracle (Isaiah 9:1-7). Isaiah 9:1-2
The word כִּ֣י in 9:1 continues the thought of Isa. 8:19-22. "Galilee of the Nations" is a phrase that is unique in the Hebrew Bible. No one else who mentions Galilee in the Hebrew Bible "found it necessary to call attention to Gentiles" (J. Motyer Alec, The Prophecy of Isaiah, kindle loc. 3002). But the authors of the Hebrew Bible conceived of a Messiah for the entire world, not just Israel (see below//Isa. 11:4, 10)!
"The people" include gentiles, as it does in Isaiah 11:10 ("the people"), which no doubt refers to gentiles, as in 42:6. As noted above, Isaiah 9:2 picks up on an important theme from Isaiah 2:2-5 (which depicts the gentiles streaming to YHWH in the distant future in relation to the original author) by picking up the imagery of light: "let us walk in the light of the Lord" (Isa. 2:5). The thought of Isaiah 2:5 follows 2:2-4, as evidenced by a number of literary echoes that 2:5 picks up from 2:2-4 (for evidence of this, see Bertil Wiklander, Prophecy as Literature: A Text Linguistic and Rhetorical Approach to Isaiah 2-4 [ConBOT 22; Stockholm: Liber Tryck, 1984], pp. 101). Isa. 2:5 thus functions as an "exhortation to the house of Jacob to imitate the nations in their conversion from idols to the true God. This has the literary effect of associating the imagery of light in 2:5 with the revelation of God to the nations in 2:2-4" (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, pp. 57).
As Isaiah 9 picks up on themes from Isaiah 2, Isaiah 11:9-10 does the same thing with both Isaiah 9 and 2. There are many lexical and thematic themes picked up in Isaiah 11 from chapters 2 and 9, in addition to what was pointed out just above (see here for the links between Isaiah 11 and Isaiah 2, and below for the links between Isaiah 11 and 9). All "these intertextual connections link the dawning of the light upon the mixed gentile populace of northern Israel (“Galilee of the nations”) in Isaiah 9 . . . with the conversion of the gentiles envisioned in 11:9-10" (ibid., 57). Since Isaiah 2 and 11 deal with distant future, so does Isaiah 9.
The Messiah in Isa; 11:1 is associated with "branch" imagery. The Hebrew word for "branch" or "scion" in Isa. 11:1 is neṣer (unlike the branch imagery in Jer. 23:5 and Zech 3:8; 6:12, which user the word ṣemaḥ). As Christophe Rico points out in The Mother of the Infant King, there is a striking connection, at least at face value, between the word neṣer, and town historical ancient town of Nazareth. The Hebrew word neṣer contains consonants which approximate those in the name Nazareth; N, Z, and R. Thus, the mention of a light dawning upon "Galilee of the gentiles" in Isa. 9:1, and the word neṣer used in Isa. 11:1 vis-à-vis the name of Nazareth, which Jesus was associated with ("Jesus of Nazareth"), is probably what spurned the author of the Gospel of Matthew to make the connections made in Mt. 2:22-23 ("ta merê tês Galilaias" - 2:22, "Nazôraios" - 2:23).

Isaiah 9:3-5
Many interpret these verses as referring to an end to war (or a victory from a battle with the Assyrians) and a return of the exiles from northern Israel in connection with the advent of the Davidide. But neither options are being communicated here literally. Christopher Seitz writes: "the cause for joy is not so much pending military victory but the “birth” of a new ruler" (Seitz, Isaiah 1-39, pp. 147). Supporting this interpretation is the "for" construction leading up to the birth of the "Son." So the joy experienced from "the people" due the coming of the "Son" is like or is compared to the joy over a return from exile or the conquering of enemies.

The Titles Given to the "Son" in Isaiah 9:6-7
"Wonderful Counselor"
Markus Zehnder notes that, whenever Isaiah "uses the root פלא, either in the form of the noun פלא ("wonder”) or the verb פלא in the hiphil conjugation (“to work wonders”), it is used with God as the subject of the wonders" (Zehnder, "The Question of the “Divine Status of the Davidic Messiah," Bulletin for Biblical Research, 2020, pp. 497). The root פלא thus strictly relates to the realm of divine action in Isaiah. Markus Zehnder also writes that: "In two of the three instances, פלא is combined with the root יעץ ("counsel”), exactly as we find it in Isa 9:5[6], and in both instances it is clear that it is God himself who is designated as a “wonder-counselor" (Isa 25:1; 28:29)" (ibid., 497). H.G.M. Williamson adds:
The root יָעָ֖ץ, whether as verb or noun, is also used in relation to God at 14.24, 27; 19.12, 17; 23.9
(Williamson, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 399)

"Mighty God"
The same exact words, 'ēl gibbôr, is applied for YHWH Himself in 10:20-21 - the very next chapter that follows Isaiah 9. Outside of the verse in question, 'ēl gibbôr is a "divine designation which is never used elsewhere for a human being" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12 [ICC, 2018], pp. 399). See Deut. 10:17 and Jer. 32:18 (Neh. 9:32 also points this way). There is one example from Ezekiel 32:21, a text written 120+ years after Isa. 9:6-7, where a modified form of 'ēl gibbôr is not used for YHWH, but for mighty warriors. However, there are three main arguments against the relevance of this text: (a) Unlike Isaiah 9:6; 10:21 (and Deut. 10:17 and Jer. 32:18), the term in Ezekiel is "plural and overtly linked in a genitive relation" (J. Alec Motyer, The Prophecy of Isaiah, pp. 105). H.G.M. Williamson says that "it is difficult to relate the plural in any direct way with the name/title in our verse" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12 [ICC, 2018], pp. 399, n. 121); (b) the usage of the phrase in Isa. 10:20-21 is much more illuminating than the text in Ezekiel; (c) Paul Wegner points out that "the most common use of 'el in the book of Isaiah . . . refer to divinity, either the true God . . . or false gods" (Paul D. Wegner, "A Re-Examination of Isaiah Ix 1-6," VT, 1992, pp. 110, n. 29), among other arguments.

"Eternal Father"
The use of "Father" for the Israelite king is unattested (the king was usually designated as YHWH's son; see Williamson below). Interesting than is Isaiah 1:2-3, where "the fatherhood of God underlies the opening metaphor of the book" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 400). See also the use of "Father" for YHWH in Isa. 63:16 and 64:7. The notion of eternity only further supports the divinity of the "Son."

Responding to Counter-Arguments For the Deity of the "Son."
In response to the divinity of the names given to the "Son," some Jewish interpreters (e.g., Rashi) translate or have translated Isaiah 9:6 as: ". . . and the wondrous adviser, the mighty God, the everlasting Father, called his name, 'the prince of peace.'" However, H.G.M. Williamson calls this construction "least plausible" (Williamson, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 396). If pele' yo'ets 'el gibbor 'abi'ad would all be one subject, it would be very strange to have it in the position of this translation (it would be much more natural to have either the verb q-r-' followed by shmo or at least shmo moved directly before sar shalom); additionally, it would be much more natural to have the subject precede the direct object (shemo) - the sequence first direct obj. then subj. is ungrammatical. Some try to support this translation by appealing to the Hebrew word for “name," which is singular here. So it is argued that that this child could only have one name - the one at the end (with the rest describing God). But while שם here is singular, the word is used in multiple contexts for multiple meanings, and doesn't just refer to one singular "name" each and every time it's used (e.g., Gen. 31:48-49). It may be helpful to compare Isa. 8:1-3 to Isa. 9:6. There Isaiah is instructed to write on a scroll before witnesses מַהֵ֥ר שָׁלָ֖ל חָ֥שׁ בַּֽז, 'Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz.' So, Isaiah and "the prophetess" have a son, and the prophetess evidently conceived and bore this son of Isaiah. Now the name given to Isaiah's new son has several components and is quite lengthy (it is actually one of the longest name in Scripture!). Yet Isaiah has no problem using the singular שְׁמ֔וֹ, "name" to describe it. While this may not be an exact parallel, the grammar point is worth considering.
Besides, if one wants to argue along these lines, how exactly does one decide which designation applies to whom? Is it the "Wonderful Counsellor" that names this child "Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace"; or is it the "Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God" that names this child "Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace"; or is it the "Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father" that names this child Prince of Peace," etc?
Others try and separate the four names into two clauses, thus resulting in two theophoric names ("wonderful planner [is] the mighty God; the Father of eternity [is] a prince of peace"). Paul D. Wegner for example writes:
This interpretation would be favoured by: (1) its similarity to the parallel structure in the name Maher-shalal-hash-baz; (2) the translation of sem as one name which the singular form suggests; (3) the Masoretic pointing; and (4) the common pattern in theophoric names. (Wegner 1992: 111)
H.G.M. Williamson agrees with Wegner's interpretation (see Williamson, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 398). In response to this,
  1. The distinct elements of the names in Isa. 9:6 make perfect sense on their own, unlike the separate units of the name 'Maher-shalal-hash-baz' as such.
  2. One has to bear in mind the frequency of a singular used as a collective in Biblical Hebrew. Just look at a grammar of biblical Hebrew, one will find many examples of this.
  3. Despite the MT, Jewish tradition overwhelmingly translates the text differently. Just look for instance at the French translation of "The Bible du Rabbinat": "Conseiller merveilleux, Héros divin, Père de la conquête, Prince de la Paix."
  4. The names in Isaiah 9 do not follow the common pattern of theophoric names and have embarrassed commentators who think that the Messiah (or a king) couldn't have possibly been thought of as YHWH himself in ancient Judaism. So, per these interpreters, most of the names could only be borne by YHWH. But the names are preceded by a passive form of the verb qara' which points to a divine passive ("he will be called" that is, by YHWH), which points against this.
Williamson admits that his reading of the names is a "minority line of interpretation" on pp. 397 (ICC, 2018).
Another dubious way certain scholars try and get around the language of the "Son" being YHWH Himself is to attribute the names given to the "Son" as being merely highly rhetorical cultic and court language. Many will point to Psalm 45:7-8 in support of this, where the King is, according to certain constructions, called ’ĕlōhîm. However, against the names being merely court/cultic hyperbole and against the relevance of Psalm 45: (a) the word 'ēl gibbôr is used for YHWH in the very next chapter (cf. 10:21), and the 'ēl gibbôr in 10:21 echoes 9:6, thus relating the use of 'ēl gibbôr in 9:6 with 10:21; (b) the word ’ĕlōhîm does not always denote divinity in the HB, unlike 'ēl gibbôr (at least outside of Isa. 9:6, which is the verse in question); (c) similarly, Williamson (who doubts the relevance of Psalm 45 here) notes that "there is no known parallel to calling the king ‘Father’; rather the king is more usually designated as God’s son" (ibid., 397); (d) Ps. 45:7-8 is syntactically ambiguous (certain scholars translate the verses in such a way as to have no implication of deity for the king); and finally (e) Williamson notes: "... the use of this kind of language in a birth oracle (as opposed to an accession oracle) is less securely attested and perhaps even unlikely" (ibid., 397). This is where Williamson than posits splitting the names into two theophoric clauses (but see above). Many scholars have thought that Isaiah 9 is an accession oracle, but this I think has been refuted by Paul D. Wegner in his 1992 VT article, pp. 104-109 (esp. 104-107) and H.G.M. Williamson's 2018 ICC commentary, Isaiah 6-12, pp. 394-395.
\______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________)
The Messianic Identity of the "Son." The "Son" of Isaiah 7 is the same "Son" in Isaiah 9, since both passages speak about a Davidic "בֵּ֚ן" ("Son") given lofty titles/names to be born as a sign of hope for the Davidic dynasty. By Isaiah expanding his prophecy in Isa. 7:14 to include the oracles of 9:1-7 and 11, Isaiah has left nothing ambiguous regarding the Messianic identity of Immanuel.

The Shoot of Jesse in Isaiah 11 as the Future Messiah
J.J.M. Roberts points out in The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Collected Essays (Eisenbrauns, 2019) that no where in the HB does the actual Hebrew word for Messiah, מָשִׁיחַ, refer to the actual Davidic Messiah in the full sense of the concept. I think there is an exception in the book of Daniel, but that book dates much later. As such,
"A discussion of the Old Testament’s contribution to the development of the later messianic expectations can hardly be focused on the Hebrew word for messiah" (pp. 376).
So the lack of the use of the word for 'Messiah' in this passage is a poor argument against this passage speaking about the future Messiah. Isaiah 11 is traditionally read as Messianic in Jewish tradition. Reasons for a long range Messianic interpretation of Isa. 11 include:

The Messianic Identity of the "Son" in Isaiah 7 and 9.
Isaiah 5-12 contains three consecutive panels portraying the coming King, just as Deutero-Isaiah contains three consecutive panels describing the Servant of YHWH (Isa. 49, 50, 52-53 [ch. 42 is much earlier]). The cumulative evidence links the three sections revolving around Isa. 7; 9 and 11 as portraying a coming King using quite variegated imagery and symbolism. One of the connections between Isa. 7 and the section that revolves around Isa. 11 is that Isaiah has a son named Shear Jashub (which literally means 'a remnant will return'), as one can see in Isa. 7:3. But the thought of a remnant returning is communicated by Isa. 10:20-21 (Isa. 10:21 says that 'a remnant will return'). Isa. 10:20-21 lands in a section (Isaiah 10:5-34) which Christophe Rico and Jacob Stromberg (cf. "Hezekiah and the Oracles against the Nations in Isaiah," The History of Isaiah, Mohr Siebeck, 2021) have shown revolve around the Stump of Jesse oracle in Isaiah 11, and thus inaugurates it, especially since Isaiah 11:1ff. is syntactically linked with what precedes (וְיָצָ֥א). This link with Isaiah's son in Isa. 7:3, Shear Jashub (“A-Remnant-Shall-Return”), and the words “a remnant shall return” in Isa. 10:20-21, is thus developed in the Messianic oracle of Isaiah 11. Both Isa. 11:11 and Isa. 11:16 have two uses of the word שׁאר, and this word is present in 7:3 and 10:21. The Hebrew word מסלה, "highway," is also seen in Isa. 11:16, as in 7:3. There are more links noted in Stromberg's 2021 essay (pp. 319, n. 43), further strengthening the point about Shear Jashub. Other links between Isa. 11 and 7 include Isa. 11:2's “The spirit of counsel and strength” (rûaḥ ēşâ gəbûrâ), which will rest on the shoot of Jesse. These two qualities, "counsel and “plan” ( tēşâ ) echoes the first chapters of the Immanuel booklet (yā’aş in Isa. 7:5, "he plotted”; ‘üşû êşâ in Isa. 8:10, “form a plan”). Additionally, as in Isa. 7:2, Isa. 11:2 [4x], 15 has the image of rûaḥ. Etc.
Moving on, the el-gibbor child of Isaiah 9 (the same person as Immanuel) is also clearly the Messiah. For example, Isa. 9:1-7 clearly relates to Isaiah 11. James P. Ware in his book Paul and the Mission of the Church: Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context (Baker Academic, 2011), pp. 57, n. 22 notes numerous striking thematic and lexical links that connect Isa. 11:9-10, with the opening of the first royal oracle in Isaiah 9 (cf. 9:1b-9:2). These thematic and lexical links are:
There are other similarities between Isaiah 9 and 11 as well:
Since Isa. 11 is about the Messiah and seemed to take Isa. 9 (and 7) as Messianic, that probably means that Isa. 9 (and 7) was originally about the future Messiah as well. Isaiah 9 itself however makes clear that the "Son" (same person as "Immanuel") was no normal earthly king among kings, and transcends mundane earthly rule. Isaiah thought "there will be no end" to the reign of this King "from this time forth and forevermore." How does this apply to Hezekiah or any of the pre-exilic kings in Judah? Childs puts it this way:
The description of his reign makes it absolutely clear that his role is messianic. There is no end to his rule upon the throne of David, and he will reign with justice and righteousness forever.
(Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah, pp. 81 [emphasis mine])
There is also a glorious image that emerges in the background of the dramatic movement of Isaiah 6-12. It is the image of a cut down tree that begins to sprout again, which symbolizes both the people and also the Messianic King (Isa. 6:13; 7:2, 23-25; 9:15, 18; 10:15, 18-19, 33-34; 11:1). See my last post for more on this imagery. The fact that Isaiah 11:1 is syntactically linked with what precedes (which is Isaiah 10:33-34), where the forest/tree imagery is present, is thus noteworthy.
It must be noted though that, just because Isaiah 11:1 is syntactically related to the preceding, does not necessarily mean that the Messiah will come around the same time as the hewing of the Assyrians as trees, as depicted in 10:33-34. One has to bear in mind that a prophecy or an oracle is never an exact chronological account of what is to come. The biblical oracles have their own literary genre, which has nothing to do with the way we write history nowadays. The vav before the perfect verb does not necessarily indicate a strict order of events (look at the narrative of Gen. 1 for a good example of this). Besides, is it really believable that, in the times of Hezekiah or after the return from exile, Judah was reconciled with Ephraim (Isa. 11:13)? Chapter 11 refers to the coming of the Messiah and to its era but it does not indicate a specific time for the event.
\______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________)
The Virginity of 'Immanuel's' Mother. Christophe Rico in a recent monograph (The Mother of the Infant King) argues that ‘almāh means "young virgin," distinct from betûlāh, which refers to a virgin of any age. Aside from the textually uncertain text in Prov. 30:19, the surrounding context around the uses of the word ‘almāh in the Bible reveal that ‘almāh denotes a young virgin (in areas where the context allows us to make a judgement). Many different languages from all different types of family languages have a distinction between ‘girl,' ‘virgin’ and ‘young virgin' (e.g., Arabic [fatâ’ah, bikr, ‘ażra’]; Catalan [noia, poncella, verge]; Russian [devuška, devica, devstevenica]), so it isn't hard to believe that the same set of distinctions existed in ancient Hebrew before ‘almāh eventually became a technical musical term later on. For the full case for "young virgin," see Rico's full book (or here for more). Rico claims to make arguments regarding ‘almāh purely as a linguist.
A key point though is that the birth of Immanuel is a "sign" (’ôt). While it is true that ’ôt doesn't necessarily denote anything miraculous, the context and use of ’ôt suggests this:
First, the verb ’nissâ ("to test") occurs in the context of Isa. 7:14 (cf. v. 12). As Rico points out, when used in the context of a sign request, the verb nissâ occurs in only one other place in the Bible. That occurrence is found in the Midian episode with Gideon (see the use in Judg. 6:39), where the sign is miraculous. The use of the verb nissâ in the context of Isa. 7:14 thus suggests that the sign is meant to be miraculous as well. There are striking parallels to this story in Judges with the oracles of Isaiah 7-11, which strengthen this link with Isa. 7 and the Gideon episodes. See my last post for the parallels.
Second, Mark D. Schutzius (II) argues in The Hebrew Word for 'sign' and Its Impact on Isaiah 7:14 that every unambiguous miraculous use of the word ’ôt has YHWH specifically provide the sign. Instructive is Isa. 38:7 ("This is the sign to you from the Lord . . ."), where the sign is miraculous. Contrary to verses like this, uses of the word ’ôt that aren't miraculous do not come directly from YHWH. Rather, they describe God designating ordinary people, things, or events as "signs" (e.g., Gen. 1:14; 9:11-17; 17:11; Exod. 3:11-12; 12:7-13; Num. 2:2; 16:38; Ezek. 14:8). If ’ôt in 7:14 did not denote a miracle, it would be far out of step with the typical usage of ’ôt where YHWH says he provided it.
For KTU 1.24:7 as an objection to Rico, see his counter quoted in my post linked above.
submitted by TribeofYHWH to AcademicBiblical [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 stupididiot420 Katara is annoying: Change my mind

the title says it all.
submitted by stupididiot420 to TheLastAirbender [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 Hxrdcxre Soundtoys 5 ($229), or Arturia FX Collection 2 ($69)?

Which one is better? I do not own any Arturia effects and I have a crossgrade price of $69 USD. Meanwhile, I also heard a lot of really great stuff about Soundtoys 5. I also noticed that Soundtoys 5 released 6 years ago and is due for an update, whereas FX Collection 2 was released just 5 months ago. I'm not sure which one to go for.
submitted by Hxrdcxre to edmproduction [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 Icy-Study-3679 I lied

My T gave me the depression and anxiety scale forms to fill out again to compare from my intake and I improved some and she asked what it was due to and gave suggestions. I said yes to time and therapy, but I lied. Pretty sure the time thing is yes because I waited til I was at rock bottom from PTSD to get help and generally PTSD flashbacks etc will improve somewhat after a couple months anyway.
But I felt I had to say yes to therapy helping because I didn’t want her to say that I had to go somewhere else if therapy isn’t working. I struggle a lot to open up and I know it’s frustrating, that she’s trying to figure out what will help me and trying to ask me what I need, except I have no idea. I don’t think it would be any better with anyone else - I trust no one. But I felt the need to just say that she was helping me, I guess maybe to not hurt her feelings and not get abandoned.
Any advice besides just coming clean? Anyone else been in this situation and admitted that therapy wasn’t helping them?
submitted by Icy-Study-3679 to TalkTherapy [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 cadenherring123 Voucher Code Binance

Visit for Voucher Code Binance. The most used and at the same time the most reliable crypto exchange platform is Binance. Also, Binance extremely easy to use and learn. You can earn a 20% commission discount on each purchase.
Binance 20% Referral Code: 77181558
How to Register Binance? To make an account with Binance, you should simply get enrolled on the Official Binance Website. On the enrollment page you will be elevated to enter a substantial email address and pick a secret phrase for yourself. When you consent to the Terms and Conditions, you will be approached to check your account by means of email. The email shipped off your given account will contain a connection where you can check your Binance account. When you click on the connection, your Binance account has been made and you are prepared to start exchanging. Yet, before you do, we suggest getting your account through two-factor confirmation. Since exchanging cryptographic money is an expensive and dangerous cycle, it is fundamental for guard your account from any programmers on the web. Binance permits you to set up 2FA and interface your account to your versatile number. This implies that before you can sign in to your Binance account from another gadget, you will be approached to confirm your personality through the telephone number gave.
Funding Your Binance Account As referenced before, Binance is absolutely a cryptocurrency trade application. This implies that to begin exchanging with Binance, you will be needed to finance your account with some current cryptocurrency. This should be possible utilizing some other cryptocurrency trade wallet. Just go to your wallet where you have the cryptocurrency put away, select the amount you need to move, and send those assets to your substantial Binance account. The most awesome aspect of exchanging with computerized monetary standards is that everything occurs in a moment. When you select 'send' from your crypto trade wallet, your Binance account will be supported right away. If you register with a Binance Referral Link, it will provide to you 15% discount from your each buying.
submitted by cadenherring123 to BinanceSgReferral [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 augustestes Referral Code For Binance Us

Visit for Referral Code For Binance Us. The most used and at the same time the most reliable crypto exchange platform is Binance. Also, Binance extremely easy to use and learn. You can earn a 20% commission discount on each purchase.
Binance 20% Sign Up Code: 77181558
How to Register Binance? To make an account with Binance, you should simply get enrolled on the Official Binance Website. On the enrollment page you will be elevated to enter a substantial email address and pick a secret phrase for yourself. When you consent to the Terms and Conditions, you will be approached to check your account by means of email. The email shipped off your given account will contain a connection where you can check your Binance account. When you click on the connection, your Binance account has been made and you are prepared to start exchanging. Yet, before you do, we suggest getting your account through two-factor confirmation. Since exchanging cryptographic money is an expensive and dangerous cycle, it is fundamental for guard your account from any programmers on the web. Binance permits you to set up 2FA and interface your account to your versatile number. This implies that before you can sign in to your Binance account from another gadget, you will be approached to confirm your personality through the telephone number gave.
Funding Your Binance Account As referenced before, Binance is absolutely a cryptocurrency trade application. This implies that to begin exchanging with Binance, you will be needed to finance your account with some current cryptocurrency. This should be possible utilizing some other cryptocurrency trade wallet. Just go to your wallet where you have the cryptocurrency put away, select the amount you need to move, and send those assets to your substantial Binance account. The most awesome aspect of exchanging with computerized monetary standards is that everything occurs in a moment. When you select 'send' from your crypto trade wallet, your Binance account will be supported right away. If you register with a Binance Referral Link, it will provide to you 20% discount from your each buying.
submitted by augustestes to BinanceBonusCodes [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 kenflowerbrock Binance Sign Up Code

You can use Binance Sign Up Code, save 20% on trading fees with this link or code: 77181558
How to register Binance? To make an account with Binance, you should simply get enrolled on the Binance site. On the enrollment page you will be elevated to enter a substantial email address and pick a secret phrase for yourself. When you consent to the Terms and Conditions, you will be approached to check your account by means of email. The email shipped off your given account will contain a connection where you can check your Binance account. When you click on the connection, your Binance account has been made and you are prepared to start exchanging. Yet, before you do, we suggest getting your account through two-factor confirmation. Since exchanging cryptographic money is an expensive and dangerous cycle, it is fundamental for guard your account from any programmers on the web. Binance permits you to set up 2FA and interface your account to your versatile number. This implies that before you can sign in to your Binance account from another gadget, you will be approached to confirm your personality through the telephone number gave.
submitted by kenflowerbrock to BinanceReferralBonus [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 anthonychapman123 Best Crypto Exchange Fees

The most used and at the same time the most reliable crypto exchange platform is Binance. Also, Binance extremely easy to use and learn. you can EARN A 15% COMMISSION DISCOUNT on each purchase, by registering with a [Best Crypto Exchange Fees](https://accounts.binance.com/en/register?ref=77181558).

Binance 15% Referral Code: 77181558
submitted by anthonychapman123 to BinancePromoCodes1 [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 kirancoffey How To Create Binance Demo Account

The most used and at the same time the most reliable crypto exchange platform is Binance. Also, Binance extremely easy to use and learn. By registering with a How To Create Binance Demo Account, you can earn 20% commission discount on each purchase.
Binance 20% Referral Code: 77181558
How to register Binance? To make an account with Binance, you should simply get enrolled on the Binance site. On the enrollment page you will be elevated to enter a substantial email address and pick a secret phrase for yourself. When you consent to the Terms and Conditions, you will be approached to check your account by means of email. The email shipped off your given account will contain a connection where you can check your Binance account. When you click on the connection, your Binance account has been made and you are prepared to start exchanging. Yet, before you do, we suggest getting your account through two-factor confirmation. Since exchanging cryptographic money is an expensive and dangerous cycle, it is fundamental for guard your account from any programmers on the web. Binance permits you to set up 2FA and interface your account to your versatile number. This implies that before you can sign in to your Binance account from another gadget, you will be approached to confirm your personality through the telephone number gave.
Funding Your Binance Account As referenced before, Binance is absolutely a cryptocurrency trade application. This implies that to begin exchanging with Binance, you will be needed to finance your account with some current cryptocurrency. This should be possible utilizing some other cryptocurrency trade wallet. Just go to your wallet where you have the cryptocurrency put away, select the amount you need to move, and send those assets to your substantial Binance account. The most awesome aspect of exchanging with computerized monetary standards is that everything occurs in a moment. When you select 'send' from your crypto trade wallet, your Binance account will be supported right away. If you register with a Binance Referral Code 2021, it will provide to you 15% discount from your each buying.
submitted by kirancoffey to HowToOpenBinanceAcc [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 jeremytaildol Funding Binance Account

How to register Binance? To make an account with Binance, you should simply get enrolled on the Binance site. On the enrollment page you will be elevated to enter a substantial email address and pick a secret phrase for yourself. When you consent to the Terms and Conditions, you will be approached to check your account by means of email. The email shipped off your given account will contain a connection where you can check your Binance account. When you click on the connection, your Binance account has been made and you are prepared to start exchanging. Yet, before you do, we suggest getting your account through two-factor confirmation. Since exchanging cryptographic money is an expensive and dangerous cycle, it is fundamental for guard your account from any programmers on the web. Binance permits you to set up 2FA and interface your account to your versatile number. This implies that before you can sign in to your Binance account from another gadget, you will be approached to confirm your personality through the telephone number gave. Funding Your Binance Account As referenced before, Binance is absolutely a cryptocurrency trade application. This implies that to begin exchanging with Binance, you will be needed to finance your account with some current cryptocurrency. This should be possible utilizing some other cryptocurrency trade wallet. Just go to your wallet where you have the cryptocurrency put away, select the amount you need to move, and send those assets to your substantial Binance account. The most awesome aspect of exchanging with computerized monetary standards is that everything occurs in a moment. When you select 'send' from your crypto trade wallet, your Binance account will be supported right away. If you register with Binance Referral Link, it will provide to you 15% discount from your each buying. , it will provide to you 15% discount from your each buying.
submitted by jeremytaildol to BinanceRegister [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 AwesomeJoel27 I want a 5 sided shape but the symetry options keep forcing me to 4 or 6 points, what can I do to fix this?

submitted by AwesomeJoel27 to blenderhelp [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 audummy You don’t have to be mean

It takes absolutely no effort not to make an unwarranted, rude comment. You don’t know people or what they’re going through.
I don’t want to overshare but I want to rant. There’s a taco bell in my town that I rarely go to because of these reasons but mostly because it’s halfway across town. Once, maybe a year ago, I had gotten taco bell two days in a row. It was the same worker and after he gave me my food and I was pulling away he said, “See you tomorrow!”. I didn’t say anything, just pulled away and started crying. I struggle with a lot of confidence issues with diagnosis to match. Most days I’m down on my self and regularly question my worth and purpose. I’ve also developed an eating disorder in the past year and have been trying to eat more, even if it’s empty calories like taco bell. I got taco bell yesterday. Big mistake for today me. I think a lot and have a bad memory (not that it’s an excuse but I don’t think getting taco bell 2 days in a row is crazy outrageous). I slipped up and got taco bell tonight, admittedly, pretty late to when they close. That’s bad regardless on my part. I tried to order as quick as possible because of this and I was also pretty hungry. I’m sure you can see where it’s going at this point. After he gives me my food he says “See you tomorrow!”, super original my guy. What made it sting is everyone behind the window laughed. I gave him a weird look and drove away. Obviously, I started crying. Where do you get off on being mean to someone? Did that feed your ego? You made the sad girl cry some more today, I hope that gave you the serotonin I need you absolute hog. YOU WORK AT TACO BELL YOU PROBABLY EAT IT AT LEAST TWICE A WEEK EVERY WEEK. WHERE DO YOU GET OFF???
Needless to say I’m not gonna go back there for a while, maybe ever. Thanks for ruining what was an okay day, random taco bell worker.
submitted by audummy to rant [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 MainOdd1042 Where's a good place to play some H.O.R.S.E for a relative noob?

I'm looking for a site that offers some of the mixed games, HORSE, razz, stud. Low stakes or free, I've enjoyed those games when I've played them and I want to get some more experience.
Any help is appreciated.
submitted by MainOdd1042 to onlinepoker [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 Ok_Astronomer_1308 I regret buying the iPhone SE 2

It is a shit phone. The battery sucks. And now the iPhone’s 11 & 12 are selling at practically the same price! What can I do with this, the trade in value is more than, less than half of the original price. I absolutely regret buying this phone. Apple should be offering replacements for making something this bad! Genuinely disappointed I’m usually pretty satisfied with Apple’s products.
submitted by Ok_Astronomer_1308 to iPhoneSE [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 THExBOSSS Rate/Roast/Compliment

https://open.spotify.com/playlist/7hlJKuRx0zWJcblE1OdBhp?si=848dbfe758d64a0a
submitted by THExBOSSS to PlaylistCompetition [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 DynauewnGhoom ChainLife 🔥Liquidity Locked 🔥10% Rewards💕 2D Play to Earn Game In BETA✅ 3D Game in Development✅ Fully Doxxed Team of 5✅ AMAs with community daily✅

ChainLife $CLF is the world's first auto-reward Anime cryptocurrency. Our team is dedicated to giving the community a unique rewards system with exclusive payouts through a gaming platform, so you can play and earn $BNB and $ANB! Join our telegram to earn exclusive giveaways.
Check our pinned message, with recently had a video AMA with XRP Queen.
🍱 ChainLife Gaming Rewards NFT
🎁11% BNB rewards
📈 Tokenomics:
📌 1,000,000,000 max supply
📌 13% slippage buys
📌 3% Added to LP pool on buys
📌 10%Added to holder’s wallets
📌 15.6% transfer / sell tax
📌 3.6% Added to liquidity on the sells
📌 12% to holders on ever sell
📌 5% Marketing wallet of supply (locked 6 months)
🐋 ANTI Whale mechanism
🥡 Anti-Dump mechanism
📣 5% MARKETING WALLET 🔒 6M
💦 LIQUIDITY 🔒 6M
✅NO DEV WALLETS
✅DEV/TEAM DOXXED
✅VERIFIED CONTRACT
✅Fair Launched
✅Daily marketing Campaigns
✅Full transparency
✅Community driven
🏷️ Contract Address: 0xc9bcC17154630d760656bB016EA61938B0c47b96
Pancakeswap: https://pancakeswap.finance/swap?outputCurrency=0xc9bcC17154630d760656bB016EA61938B0c47b96
🔹 Renounced Ownership: https://bscscan.com/token/0xc9bcC17154630d760656bB016EA61938B0c47b96#readContract
🔐Liquidity Lock 1 YEAR🔒 https://deeplock.io/lock/0x4fd922f31673318FE91Ed80C02fB16214a1924be
submitted by DynauewnGhoom to ico [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 riotinthehall Question about Alex and table top

My question is about the desk top placed over a Alex drawer unit, and then bars attached to the desk on the other side like many desk setups seen.
Are there chances of the drawer unit slipping away from beneath the desk top? Because of that happens then it could damage the workstation if it falls. I Like to move my legs when working and am worried if the force might push the drawer out of place.
Has this been a common concern or is it nothing to be bothered about?
submitted by riotinthehall to IKEA [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 Baseit DNA Plastic

DNA Plastic submitted by Baseit to NileRed [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 IEatALotOfRice Can someone please explain what they teach in Msc. Chemistry?

12th grader here, I like chemistry a lot and I'm most probably gonna take up dual chem in BITS Goa if I clear the cut off next year. Before I do choose Msc. Chemistry, can someone who's taken the course up please give me a gist of what they actually do in this branch?
submitted by IEatALotOfRice to BITSPilani [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 pinickylobster This account is impersonating a deaf interpreting service called ZVRS and messaging people trying to scam them out of money. Please report them if they reach out to you and keep your financial information safe xx

This account is impersonating a deaf interpreting service called ZVRS and messaging people trying to scam them out of money. Please report them if they reach out to you and keep your financial information safe xx submitted by pinickylobster to deaf [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 pigeonlover13 A poem to help us through these tough times

It’s been 7 days Since my left eyelid Started to twitch Becoming quite violent
At first I thought It’s hyperkalemia So I stopped eating Foods like bananas
Then I thought It was multiple sclerosis Which is in line with My numerous neuroses
I wrote an affirmation But that didn’t help Coz my eye still twitches O welp
Most likely it is Due to dry eyes I should keep away my phone (A blessing in disguise)
That’s not gonna happen It’s definitely Alzheimer’s I’m gonna die soon Goodbye haters
submitted by pigeonlover13 to BFS [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 PickTasty 🥵

submitted by PickTasty to CharlotteCrosby [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 Seathre karma

karma submitted by Seathre to IoGames [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 idontknowwtfurdoing What is your favorite drink and why?

submitted by idontknowwtfurdoing to AskReddit [link] [comments]


2021.11.28 05:18 -MH2- You get a million dollars, BUT you'll have to live with the feeling that there is a small hard rock under the center of your foot for the rest of your life; would you accept this deal?

View Poll
submitted by -MH2- to polls [link] [comments]


http://rostok-dk.ru